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By Vladimir Mikheev, Vitaliy Khizhnyak,
15 May 1999

MOX - Another Shady Adventure of Minatom

Citizen`s Guide

The book has been published with financial support of the Winston Foundation for World Peace

Project leader and author - V. I. Mikheev, author and scientific editor - V.G. Khizhnyak. Krasnoyarsk, the Citizens` Center on Nuclear Nonproliferation, 1999. - 52 p. Ill.: photo - 4, drawings - 15, diagrams - 3, tables - 2. References: 31 title.

The book concisely and in a popular form presents information about plutonium - an artificial chemical element, its production, isotopes, properties, prospects of its application. Two fundamentally different approaches to plutonium handling have been outlined:

* Immobilization (conversion of plutonium into a vitrified or ceramic matrix) in combination with high-level wastes or without them to be buried in geological formations.

* Combustion of plutonium in nuclear power station as a mixed uranium-plutonium fuel (MOX fuel).

Russia considers the weapon-grade plutonium the national wealth and valuable energy raw material to be used in peaceful nuclear power stations. Meanwhile the Ministry of Atomic Energy is completely forgetful about all negative aspects inherent to development of MOX technologies. This prompted us to publish this book intended for a broad circles of readers.

The simple variant we followed from the beginning was to exclude technicalities, to give nothing superfluous. Yet, it turned out that even representatives of public organizations dealing with nuclear safety have no complete information on MOX economics. The book in your hands is intended to help solve the problem.

For additional information material on this problem we refer to the study by Janzaburo Takagi et al. "Comprehensive assessment of social aspects of MOX fuel use in light-water reactors " translated and issued by the Center for nuclear ecology and energy policy of the Social-Ecological Union by the end of 1998.

The authors of the book used their own materials and open data published in different sources. The authors do no claim the presentation to be complete and would appreciate all remarks, comments and additional material, and are ready to receive them at

Authors: Vladimir Mikheev, Vitaly Khizhnyak
Artist: Anatoly Samarin
Photo: Vladimir Mikheev
Layout and makeup: Aleksandr Gryzlov
Proofreader: Nadezhda Bazganova

Citizens` Center on Nuclear Nonproliferation, Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk Regional Ecological Movement


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